According to the 2019 Regional Innovation Scoreboard, there is a large variation in the number of international scientific co-publications within European countries.
Germany, Greece and the Netherlands have the highest degree of variety in terms of how their different regions perform.
Ireland and Croatia show no regional variety. All Irish regions belong to the top one-third performers, while both Croatian regions are in the middle one-third of performers.
In the commission’s scoreboard, the regions around capital cities dominate the top 40. That is because strong regional performance is linked to the presence of universities, of which there are more in metropolitan areas.