Many technologies are under development, from electric cars and fuel cells to cellulosic biofuels, but none yet are cost-effective and market uptake is stymied.
Many technologies are under development to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from transport, including electric cars, fuel cells, biofuels and liquid natural gas, but none yet is cost-effective and market uptake is stymied.
To meet the EU’s 2020 targets on greening of the transport sector, policymakers need to understand which low-carbon vehicle technologies and fuels have the best chance of mass deployment.
They also need to compare the energy tabs of each – from well-to-wheels. Which fuels and powertrain technologies hold the best promise to deliver low-carbon road transport at a reasonable cost? And what policies would help accelerate investment by industry?